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FAQ

What are SARMs?


SARMS Straight away, the selective androgen receptor modulators are a new class of ligands of the androgen receptors. In other terms, these molecules, witch are chemically formulated, bond to the androgen receptors and activate in a selective manner the tissues, them who have an androgenic action, that is a proper action to androgen hormones. Therefore, the SARM’s can have an agonist action, that is similar or antagonist( Christainsen, Lpishultz, Hotaling,Pastuszac 2020, Gao and Dalton 2007, Narayanan and Ross 2018, Basin and Jasuja 2009) In addition, in it structure, the SARM’s divide in 2 categories. That is the one who are steroids end the ones that aren’t. the majority of SARMS develop till now are non steroids, anabolic and can be administrated orally, or transdermal through the epidermis ( authors mentioned before….2020, 2007, 2018 and 2009). Further more, the SARM,s once administrated, have the capacity to activate the selective androgen receptors in the muscle and in the bones without activating the androgen receptors in the prostate and in the seminal vesicule for example. Therefore, it minimises the impact usually negative in those tissues. (Gao et Dalton, 2007b, Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018; Negro-Vilar, 1999). It’s a manner of fact, the SARM’s are neither summated or influenced by the 5A reductase enzyme and by consequence aren’t metabolise in dihydrotestosterone. For a comparative, testosterone is converted in DHT by means of the 5A reductase enzyme in a selective manner in the tissues ( prostate and skin). Further more, testosterone constitute the primary androgen circulating in bones and muscle while the DHT is the principal androgen in the prostate. The DHT prevalence; witch dominates up to 95% in the prostate, makes sure to amplify the testosterone activity and to expand to the neighbouring tissues(Gao et Dalton, 2007b, Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018; Negro-Vilar, 1999).. so, the SARM’s that are not metabolise in DHT, permits to reach the anabolic effects of testosterone especially on the bone and muscle without the undesirable effects mostly associated…(edema and such…) In the same order of idea, the SARM’s are not metabolize in oestrogen via aromatase in the adipose tissues, the bones and in the central nervous system witch has a result to limit the effects of this one the body and divers tissues.( Christiansen, Lipshultz, Hotaling et Pastuszak, 2020 ; Davey, et Grossmann, 2016).in fact, as much as the oestrogen is beneficial to bones and brain, that hormone is also responsible for the increase of negative effects on the breast and uterus. For example, the activation of the oestrogen by the oestradiol, the principal hormone on the oestrogen, permits the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis( Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018). In fact, the double impact of the SARM’s in the tissues and the bones is favourable at the osteoporosis treatment because of an increase of muscular mass and force and permits the bone mass reconstruction( Gao and Dalton 2007). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41443-021-00465-0




Androgen Receptors


Androgen receptors are from the super family of nuclear and steroidal receptors. They are located at the same time in non reproductive and reproductive tissues like the prostate, the liver, the skin, skeleton and the central nervous system ( Gao and Dalton2007). These receptors are of interest in both medical and scientific spheres. It’s a manner of fact, several ligands have been found or used for various treatments like muscle lost, hypogonadism, prostate cancer, and prostatic hyperplasia (Gao et Dalton 2007). As mentioned before, with the ligands ,androgen receptors play a fundamental role by maintaining and helping growth of muscle, bones, secondary sexual organs and body tissues( Narayanan Ross et Dalton 2018, Poujol et Sultan 2000). However, while they are implicated in the normal development of many tissues, can under certain conditions promote certain pathologies to the heart, liver and the prostate ; dyslipidemia, hypertrophy of the prostate and the proliferation of endometer cells. It is a result of the pathology of endogen androgen which is the testosterone and his metabolite or his derivative dihydrotestosterone under the action of 5A-reductase enzyme. They act as steroid agonist to the androgen receptor. Therefore, it reorients the studies to ligand research having an agonist action to the androgen receptors, where these ones would activate the androgen receptor in the targeted tissues and wouldn’t activate other tissues like the heart, the liver and the prostate. Therefore, the development of the selective modulator of the androgen receptor non steroids (SARMS) has as principal objective to minimise indesirable effects due to androgen steroids. All the more than the fact to put in evidence the potential anabolic effects that will permit to resort to eventual therapeutic treatments that is not supported with the androgen receptors ( Gao et Dalton 2007)




Androgen?


Androgen Androgens contribute in a fundamental manner to the development and maintain of muscles, bones, sexual organs and variant body tissues ( Naranayan, Ross et Dalton 2018). In fact, it plays a primordial role in masculine physiology in part by the contribution at the level of difference in sexual masculinity, puberty changes, maintaining bone mass, prostate growth and sperm count at an adult age ( Gao and Dalton 2007)




Androgen Ligands


Androgen ligands Androgen ligands, which testosterone in circulation and synthesize dihydrotestosterone locally, unite with the androgen receptors and activate them so that they deliver more effect. Further more, the nuclear and steroidal hormones receptors, who play an important role in organogenesis ( a embryogenesis stage), the physiology and in the development of pathologies in many tissues, are activated a wide variety of ligands including natural hormones, peptides or synthetic molecules (Narayanan, Ross and Dalton 2018)




SARMs Recommend


Sarmcenter Labs recommend SARMS examples For muscular mass development with Sarmcenter Product Best seller - testolone ( RAD 140) 20mg/30ml - ibutamiren ( MK – 677) 30mg/30ml - myostine ( YK -11) 20mg/30ml For weight loss or cutting
Sarmcenter labs Recommend - cardarine (GW501516) 20mg/30ml - stanabolic (SR 9009) 20mg/30ml - ostarine (MK-2866) 30mg/30ml




STUDIES


SARM’s studies A number of first generation SARM’s are found in clinical testing for phase 1 and 2, where the SARM’s have demonstrated a signified diminution in concentration of HDL cholesterol and in sexual hormones globulin and aspartate aminotransferase ( ASAT enzyme in the liver and muscles) and alanine aminotransferase ( enzyme in the liver)( Bhasin et Jasuja, 2009.). The application of the SARM’s for a medical use or clinical would permit the different development of molecules according to tissues targeted. A SARM’s with a minimal activity and that has demonstrated his efficiency to the prostate notably, could be very pertinent for older men who have osteoporoses but not having any signs of hypogonadisme (Negro-Villar, 1999).




SARMs interest


SARM’s interest With normal aging, men and woman have a reduction of mass, power and muscular force( Bhasin et Jasuja, 2009). This loss which is associated with age ( a 1% loss of corporal mass per year for people over 40 years old) is mostly associated with a muscular fiber diminution type 2 also called fast contraption fibers (Bhasin et Jasuja, 2009 ; Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018). Therefore this lost increases the chances of fall, fractures and reduced mobility . Furthermore, in practice, geriatre have not a lot of options in terms of treatment for that specific clientele (Bhasin et Jasuja, 2009 ; Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018). With certain chronic diseases like chronic obstructive lung disease, kidney disease and certain form of cancer, a caracterise by a loss of bone mass( with an advance form of this disease , patients can lose up to 1.5kg per year(Bhasin et Jasuja, 2009 ; Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018). The SARM’s are found pertinent knowing that the muscular mass is directly bound to the survival rate of cancer patients. Therefore, the SARM’s would be potentially in the treatment of certain diseases like the cachexie and sarcophenie , but also other medical conditions associated with the loss of corporal mass like severe burns, kidney cancer in a terminal phase and AIDS. This way the SARM’s are pertinent regarding their selective bringing in terms of tissues and as a treatment that permits the augmentation of muscular mass without indesirable effects related to androgens(Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018). In addition, the SARM’s permit to counter the effects associated with androgen steroids. As such, knowing that osteoporoses, sarcopenia and cachexia ( deterioration of tissues and muscles) affect man as woman. The use of SARM,s in that way that it could treat certain pathologies for women without the virilizing effects(Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018). In effect, the most beneficial effect of the use SARM’s anabolic is that their ligands represents a secure option in terms of treatment for women since it doesn’t bring virilizing effects. Also, as much as the androgen represent a treat for prosate cancer, they were recommended for the treatment of breast cancer and thus before the interest towards the SERM’s ( selective oestrogen receptor modulators) and the SARM’s. So, with the SARM’s, women would have at their disposition a extra and potential treatment against bresat cancer(07 ; Narayanan, Ross et Dalton, 2018).




Conclusion?


Conclusion The SARM’s look very promising as a new class of anabolic therapies targeting the weaken of bones and muscles and to functional limitations due to aging or certain disease. Nevertheless, the ulterior researches are necessary to clarify the molecular base of selected tissues and at the same time have a greater effects on them(Bhasin et Jasuja, 2009)




Bibliographie


Bhasin, S., & Jasuja, R. (2009). Selective androgen receptor modulators as function promoting therapies. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 12(3), 232–240. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e32832a3d79 Bhasin, S., Calof, O. M., Storer, T. W., Lee, M. L., Mazer, N. A., Jasuja, R., Montori, V. M., Gao, W., & Dalton, J. T. (2006). Drug insight: Testosterone and selectiveandrogen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging. Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism, 2(3), 146–159. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncpendmet0120 Christiansen, A. R., Lipshultz, L. I., Hotaling, J. M., & Pastuszak, A. W. (2020). Selective androgen receptor modulators: the future of androgen therapy? Translational andrology and urology, 9(Suppl 2), S135–S148. https://doi.org/10.21037/tau.2019.11.02 Davey, R. A., & Grossmann, M. (2016). Androgen Receptor Structure, Function and Biology: From Bench to Bedside. The Clinical biochemist. Reviews, 37(1), 3–15.

Gao, W., & Dalton, J. T. (2007). Expanding the therapeutic use of androgens via selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Drug discovery today, 12(5-6), 241-248. Gao, W., & Dalton, J. T. (2007b). Ockham's razor and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs): are we overlooking the role of 5α-reductase?. Molecular interventions, 7(1), 10. Narayanan, R., Ross, C. C., & Dalton, J. T. (2018). Development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 465, 134-142. Negro-Vilar, A. (1999). Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs): a novel approach to androgen therapy for the new millennium. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 84(10), 3459-3462. Poujol, N., & Sultan, C. (2000). Action moléculaire des androgènes et relation structure-fonction du récepteur des androgènes., Med Sci (Paris), 2000, Vol. 16, N° 6-7; p.793-802